SITHCCC007 Prepare stocks, sauces and soups assessment

  1. List all essential equipment and utensils required for the preparation, production and service of stocks, sauces and soups and explain the use of each item.
Equipment/UtensilsExplanation for use
consommé potsto cook the stock slowly with a consistent temperature in order to let the impurities rise to the top of the stock for easy removal
cake rackUsing a cake rack in front of the spout of the Bratt pan keeps the bones from falling into the strainer
WhisksWhisks are useful for the preparation of emulsion sauces as they allow even fat dispersion and aeration.
Measuring jugsused for portion control
stick blendersused to purée the ingredients.
Wooden spoonsCan be used for sweating off ingredients.

2.Provide 3 examples each, for brown, white and miscellaneous stocks, and list

  •   the cooking times which apply
  •   the quality signs for good stock
ExamplesCooking Time
Brown stock1. veal stock

2. chicken stock

3. beef stock

4-8 hours

2-4 hours

4-8 hours

White stock1.fish stock

2.chicken stock

3.beef stock

20-30 min

2-4 hours

4-8 hrs

Miscellaneous stock1.vegetable stock

2.sweet corn stock

3.miso

Depends upon the stock to be prepared

Quality signs for stock:

•A pronounced flavour of the main ingredient

•Be fat-free

•Be clear

•Be cooked for the required time to extract all the flavour

•A good stock should be jellied when it is cold. This is achieved by adding gelatinous meat, such as shin, shank, trotters or tail to the liquid. This enriches the flavour as the collagen is broken down and its flavour is released into the stock. A double stock will also jelly due to the amount of gelatine in it

• A mixture of bones often provides a good base for soups

• Ham bones can be added to brown stock, demi-glace or game sauce for a more intense flavour. Often a base stock or ‘Grand jus’ is placed on the stove so that all the meat trimmings and roasting juices can be added during the day. The resulting strained liquid from the ‘Grand jus’ is then used instead of water when cooking fresh brown stock to provide extra flavour

  1. What are the points of care which must be applied when preparing stocks?
Points of care when preparing stocks :
  • Always start with cold liquid when filling up the bones in the pot, as this allows the impurities to rise slowly to the top during cooking and leaches out the flavour.
  • Remove the impurities and fat from the top by skimming; this gives cleaner flavours in a clear stock. Removing the fat from the top also prevents the stock from going off and exuding a sour smell when it is stored, as the fat would form a seal and prevent the stock from cooling down quickly
  • Stocks must be cooked slowly with barely perceptible movement as any rapid boiling would cook the impurities back into the stock and make it cloudy.
  1. List the production steps for each of the following types of stock:
StockProduction steps
Brown beef stock1.       Brown the bones

2.       Brown the mirepoix

3.       Release the sediment

4.       Cover the bones with cold water or grand jus

5.       Bring to the boil, reduce the heat to a simmer and skim

6.       Add the aromatics such as vegetables, herbs and spices

7.       Cook for the appropriate time to extract the flavours

8.       Strain through a fine sieve and label

9.       Store correctly

White chicken stock1.       Cover the bones with cold water

2.       Bring to the boil, reduce the heat to a simmer and skim

3.       Add the aromatics such as vegetables, herbs and spices

4.       Cook for the appropriate time to extract the flavours

5.       Strain through a fine sieve and label

6.       Store correctly in small batches

Fish stock1.       Sweat off the vegetables in butter to develop the flavour

2.       Add and sweat the fish bones to intensify the aroma

3.       Add White wine and

4.       Cooked for the required time

5.       Strain through the fine sieve and label.

6.       Store correctly in small batches

Vegetable and miscellaneous stocksVegetable stock:

1.       sauté vegetables in butter or olive oil

2.       cook on low heat with a lid

3.        add water, aromatics and specific flavours desired e.g. herbs etc.

4.       Strain through the fine sieve and label.

5.       Store correctly in small batches

Miscellaneous stocks must be produced according to the individual recipe. These stocks are often based on specific ethnic cuisines

Dashi is a Japanese stock that is used as a base for soup, e.g. miso soup, or part of a dish. Japanese cuisine has subtle light flavours with simple presentation and dashi is a typical example. It is made from sea kelp called konbu. The dried kelp is steeped in water and bonito flakes are added. When combined with miso paste and served as a soup, it may have a few cut vegetables and seafood added for eye appeal. Variations of this broth can contain dried sardines or dried oriental mushrooms such as shiitake.

 

  1. Provide an overview over the different types of glazes, the production method for a glaze and the required procedures to provide for a product which is free of impurities.

 

Types of glazes
1.              beef                                             2.             chicken                                        3. Fish and prawn
Production steps for a glaze
Glazes are made by reducing a stock to ~10% of its original volume. The flavours of the stock are intensified, and the reduction means that the gelatine contained in the stock will increase and the finished product will set once cold. All fat and impurities must be removed during the cooking process.

A double or triple layered muslin cloth can then be tied over a sterilised stainless steel bowl to thoroughly strain the glaze and remove almost all impurities.

 

  1. Provide 3 examples each for, thickeners based on fats, and thickeners based on starches. Explain how these are used in the preparation of soups and sauces including points of care to ensure a quality product.

 

Thickeners based on fatsThickeners based on starches
1..Butter –

used to “mount” sauces to give them additional sheen and flavour. Used in emulsion sauces, to hold the sabayon. Used in butter sauces to bind the liquids, e.g. reduced stock and cream

1.Pure starches

cornflour, arrowroot, rice flour, potato flour

2.Egg yolks 

used in sabayon and emulsion sauces to provide stability. Used to provide additional flavour and sheen. Used to glaze dishes under the salamander, as the egg yolks will hold the sauce in place. Used in a liaison with cream to provide extra flavour and thickening

2.Uncooked roux

beurre manie (knead equal amounts of flour and butter)

3.Cheese 

used as a thickening and flavour agent such as in sauce Mornay. Used for glazing of dishes such as oysters Mornay and gnocchi, under the salamander

3.Slurry-

a mixture of liquid and flour, e.g. red wine and flour, water and flour (floury taste – use for bulk catering or low fat diets) or cream and flour (dissolves well, use for creamy sauces, less floury taste)

  1. What are the methods to solve problems relating to stocks which are bitter, cloudy, lacking colour or lacking flavour?

 

ProblemSolution
Stock is cloudyFor hot stock:

Add whisked egg whites into the boiling stock and whisk thoroughly. Bring the liquid back to a simmer and the egg white will attract the impurities and float to the top. Strain through a fine sieve or muslin. Carefully ladle the liquid into a strainer and muslin cloth and then let it sit so that any remaining impurities can set on the bottom.

For a cold stock

Add a combination of mince and egg whites, whisk through and bring to the boil to form a raft just like for a consommé. Use the appropriate meat type to intensify the flavour, e.g. beef for a beef stock, fish for a fish stock, etc.

Stock is bitterDiscard any blackened bones or vegetables prior to cooking the stock, otherwise the bitterness will increase as the stock reduces. If the burnt flavour is strong or overpowering the entire batch must be discarded. The other cause of bitterness or strong aromas can be vegetables that are not suitable for stock. Do not use eggplants, cabbage or old vegetables as they will impart unwanted flavours into the stock
Stock lacks colourCut a mire-poix, sufficient for the volume of stock, and roast to a golden brown stage, add tomato paste and deglaze multiple times until a dark base is achieved. Add the stock, simmer and finish as normal.
Stock lacks flavourRoast additional bones and offcuts for brown stocks or add additional ingredients for white stocks and simmer until the flavours have been extracted into the stock. Finish as usual.
  1. What are the critical hygiene and food safety aspects which must apply when selecting ingredients for stocks and sauces, as well as preparing, cooling and storing stocks including the provisions for labelling?

 

Hygiene and food safety aspects which need to apply for stocks, and sauces when
Selecting IngredientsAny bones that have a slimy appearance, are old or have freezer burn should not be used. FIFO applies to stocks as well!
PreparingAny ingredients used must be fresh and of good quality
CoolingThe stock must cool from 60°C to 21°C in 2 hours and from 21°C to 5°C in a further 4 hours
Storingfollow the 2hour/4hour rule when storing stocks and also label them
  1. List the classification for soups and provide 2 menu examples for each with an appropriate service vessel for service and accompaniment or garnish (no repetition of garnish or accompaniment).

 

ClassificationMenu ExampleService wareGarnishAccompaniment
Clear soupsChicken noodle soupserved in a soup plateVegetablesBroth is clear due to the protein content in the meat cooked in the stock

Main ingredients may be cut into even shape and will provide bulk in the soup

These soups are quite filling

Consomméserved in a soup plateConsommé julienne – vegetable strips

Consommé brunoise – vegetable dice

Consommé profiteroles- small choux pastry balls

No thickening agent used

Ingredients are cooked in stock and may be clarified if based on stock from bones

Thickened soupsPumpkin soupserved in a soup platedollop of creme fraiche, some batons of fresh apple tossed in lemon juice and a couple of sage leaves that have been crisped up in a frypan in (what will become brown) butter and a little nutmegCan be based on a range of ingredients that are simmered in stock

Once the ingredients are soft the soup is blended using a mouli or blender

Chicken veloutéserved in a soup plateJulienne veg and parsleyCream soups are all soups with a velouté/Béchamel base or have cream as a major component

In general cream soups are made by using a mixture of ingredients plus a thickening agent and cream

MiscellaneousGazpachoserved in a soup plateFresh herbs: Basil, thyme, oregano, rosemary and chives. Fresh-cracked black pepperSoups which do not fall into the other classifications

Have unique recipes which must be followed

Cold soups and regional specialties

  1. Select 1 example of the soups you have listed in Question 9 and write and adjust the ingredients for the recipe, using the attached recipe template to yield 10 serves. Include the production method on the recipe card.

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